Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemical Engineering

Research Article

Impact of Ingredients Formulation and Processing Parameters on the Nutritional Quality of Foam-mat Dried Kunun-zaki Powder (A Nigerian fermented Cereal Beverage)

  • By Abbas Sadiq, Bamidele Olaiya Atteh - 06 Oct 2023
  • Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemical Engineering, Volume: 3, Issue: 5, Pages: 1 - 13
  • Received: July 15, 2023; Accepted: September 19, 2023; Published: October 6, 2023


The study investigated the effects of different ingredient formulations and processing parameters on the proximate composition and sensory qualities of foam-mat dried kunun-zaki, a traditional Nigerian beverage. The research was conducted in two stages using a mixture-process design matrix. In the first stage, kunun-zaki was produced by steeping grains (millet, maize, and soybean) for varying durations, wet milling with other ingredients (ginger, sweet potatoes, pepper, and moringa seeds), and partial gelatinization of the slurry. The second stage involved foam-mat drying at different temperatures (40 and 70°C). The proximate composition evaluated included moisture content, ash content, crude protein, crude fiber, and fat, while sensory properties like color, flavor, taste, mouthfeel, and overall acceptability were also assessed. Numerical optimization through desirability technique was employed to determine the optimum formulation and process parameters for foam-mat dried kunun-zaki. The study found that the best quality product had 9.595% moisture content, 2.552% ash content, 28.195% crude protein, 54.443% carbohydrate, 11.949% fat, and 5.828% crude fiber. This quality was achieved using a drying temperature of 40.00°C and a steeping period of 12.0 hours, with 48.435% millet and 51.565% soya bean, and no maize in the formulation, resulting in a desirability index of 0.625.